Home to charismatic wilderness on Earth India is a diverse country. The land is an assemblage of wide variety of habitats with niche ecosystems. It has affinity with three zoo geographical regions and its Oriental Realm.
The distribution of animal species in India is dependent upon multitude factors. The common factors are altitude, climate, land composition and natural formations. The altitude in India varies from high mountains in Himalayan Range, foothills of Himalaya, plains of Ganges, Deccan plateau, and low rise mountains of Satpura, Vindhya, Aravalli, and Western/Eastern Ghats.
The vegetation differs due altitude variations. The rivers and their catchment areas add to the diversity of the land. The wildlife and vegetation in higher Himalayan reaches differs vastly from that in low land. Hence different organisms are found here. This region has affinity with the Pale arctic region of the Central Asia and Europe. Parts of extreme Western India have affinity with Afrotropic zone. Rest of the country is the Indomalayan Region which covers India, South and South East Asia.
The country abounds in forests in mountains as well as plains. A large mind boggling river system stretches across the country. The cold Deserts of Himalaya and sun baked desert of the Rajasthan and Salt marshes of Gujarat harbor distinct wildlife. The fertile Gangetic River Plains are hot bed of Indian Civilization with high population density. The Deccan Plateau due to its undulating terrain encompasses a wide network of mountains, rivers and plains.
Due t varying geography a very vast variety of organisms are found in India. The incredible biodiversity has given rise to major mammals, reptiles and insects many of which are endemic. Amazing floral species microorganism, herbs, shrubs and trees constitute the biology of India.
Among the mammals and reptiles the keystone species are the tiger, lion, leopard, snow leopard, clouded leopard, wolf, wild dog and smaller carnivores, The river systems are home to endemic Gavial, marsh crocodile and the salt water crocodile. Gray Langur, rhesus macaque and their races along with hoolock gibbon constitute the primate group. The ungulates comprise of artiodactylia and Perissodactyla. The former is represented by deer, antelope and coarse grazers like the bison and banteng. The latter is represented by the wild ass and India rhino.
The greatest attractions are the tiger, lion and the leopard along with the wolf, hyena and the jackal. Among deer and antelope species swamp deer, sambar, black buck, goat antelopes like goral, four horned deer, barking deer and Indian gazelle are most popular.
Wildlife tourism in India is well organized and caters to large number of inbound tourists in India. The packages are comprised to typical itineraries that target regional wildlife. Hence region wise packages are common in India with tour operators catering to a particular region. Packages for lesser known destinations are also becoming common among tourists interested in niche habitats and their offerings.
As a nature guide Uday writes often on Indian wildlife tours organized in the tiger reserves. He also writes on Indian tiger safaris organized in National Parks of India. Uday writes on many topics related to nature and wildlife.