Pros and Cons of Tourism Industry


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The consequences of tourism are economic, social, cultural and environmental. In the case of each they bring positive and negative effects. The costs and benefits vary between MEDC and LEDC.

In the LEDC Bali tourism has had a positive effect on the economy where many new jobs have been created especially in hotels, travel agencies and the craft and entertainment. However this has caused the problem of the low level jobs being given to the locals whilst whites fill the managerial posts. Much of the money from tourism is being spent on schools, cultural, improvements, temple maintenance etc. Though, increasingly much of the money is being spent on imported goods, which don't benefit the islands economy. Nonetheless ecotourism brought many problems. The main problems included the damage to Hol Chan Marine Reserve coral, decline in conch and lobster-being over fished to meet expanded tourist market. Furthermore the government stripped part of Caye Caulker Caye to make a landing strip, destroying nesting sites and threatening the local water supply. Hence it would seem here that tourism is creating more problems than benefits.

If we look at the MEDC Spain and the Costas tourism has been very economically successful. 10% GNP is generated by tourism and in Majorcan 60% GNP (85% if you include construction). Again tourism has brought problems economically. It did lead to a measure of prosperity to the coast but only in unskilled occupations. It also drained labor from the interior with abandonment of Land. The economic benefits of tourism have not spread inland. Moreover there has been an over-concentration of tourism on the Costa del Sol East and West Malaga: this has led to over development of the coast and abandonment of traditional fishing activities. Thus, Spanish tourism has brought adverse environmental problems and very little benefits for the country. The multi storey buildings along sea fronts have blocked the light and sea views from buildings further inland. There is too little investment in infrastructure, water supply, sewage treatment: traffic bottlenecks.

Furthermore about 53% of the species of mammal found in Spain are classified as under threat. The Costa Donana, Spain's premier national park and one of Europe's most important wildlife sanctuaries is in danger of drying up because water is being extracted first for irrigation and now for tourist developments. Tourism also leads to beach and ocean pollution, the Mediterranean Sea is known as the largest sewer in the world. Increasingly it has been dumping ground for untreated sewage, industrial and chemical waste, pesticides, fertilizers and oils. The government has tried to solve these problems by introducing strategies. The Balearic government has announced a budget of 65 million to improve public and tourist amenities such as waste disposal, street lighting, road, beach and park maintenance. It has also introduced more strict controls to improve the quality of the environment i. e. cleaner beaches and to reduce sea pollution.

Furthermore in 1976, the Barcelona Convention was signed by 18 countries which border the Mediterranean. They agreed to control the release of industrial waste and other steps were taken including the setting up of 83 marine laboratories to monitor pollution.

Consequently it would seem tourism has brought benefits in the fact that environmental legislations have been tightened up and the value of the coast is beginning to be maintained and retained in order for it to survive.

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