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Science & Reference & Education Article Category
Articles about or concerning Science, Environment, Scientific Events, Ecology, Genetics, Scientific Fields, Scientific Advances, Disease, Scientific Commentary, Biology, and Human Anatomy.
Latest Articles

Where is Gold Found?

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 Paul Jorgensen (July 17, 2008)  Gold is well-known and treasured mineral that touches all of our lives, but most of us at some point wonder where gold is found. After all, it doesn't just appear in ring form wrapped around finger or in bullion form locked in a vault somewhere. Gold has to be mined before it can be processed and turned into such objects. The top source of gold in the world over the last 120 years has .. (Science)

Molecular Docking Server

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 Capri Nits (July 16, 2008)  Analysis of the mode of interaction between ligands and their target proteins is of crucial importance in order to explore different aspects of biochemical processes. Besides laboratory experiments, there is an emerging role of in-silico methods in investigating the interactions of ligands to proteins. In-silico study of protein-ligand interaction involves molecular docking, where the .. (Science)

Web Based Interface For Molecular Docking

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 Capri Nits (July 16, 2008)  Docking Server windows are organized into three modules following the basic steps of docking calculations: (1) Protein set-up (2) Ligand set-up (3) Docking Calculation. The user can create its own ligand, protein and dockings folder so that the ligands, proteins and dockings can be saved and organized for later use. Protein set-up The protein can be uploaded as a pdb file, or can .. (Science)

Fun Science Projects Make a Burglar Alarm

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 Neil Madgwick (July 16, 2008)  Fun science projects are those that teach you something about science and at the same time allow you to make something useful and fun. This is one of those projects! The job of a burglar alarm is basically to tell you when someone who shouldn't be in your house has come in - not so. And where will these nasties come in? Through a door or window - right? So if we can make something that .. (Science)

Point Me in the Right Direction, Please Magnets and Compasses

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 Neil Madgwick (July 16, 2008)  For centuries sailors knew how to use magnets in the form of compasses to show them where they were going. Compasses are fascinating instruments. In fact, when thinking about it, the concept of a magnetic field on the surface of the earth, which is what allows compasses to function, is in itself a fascinating phenomenon. Although fascinating, a compass is very simple in the way that it . (Science)

Current Events in Science Why Bother?

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 Neil Madgwick (July 15, 2008)  Once upon a time I used to teach high school science and so keeping up with current events in science was vital. The thing that upset me most when teaching those lessons were the students that refused to see the relevance of science, old and current, in their lives. I often stopped teaching the lesson to try and persuade them how relevant science, especially current events in science, .. (Science)

What Most Kids Science Websites Dont Tell You

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 Neil Madgwick (July 15, 2008)  Just by you looking at kids science websites tells me something about you. You are interested in science, even if it is just to find one of those kids science websites to help with your science fair project. Or, maybe you are just crazy about science, like me. Although there are tons of fantastic kids science websites, very few tell you what it really is like being a scientist. What is . (Science)

Activate Your Brain Simple Science Projects!

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 Neil Madgwick (July 15, 2008)  Picture this scenario: You are sitting at home on the weekend bored out of your skull. Everyone else in the house seems to have something to do, except you. The obvious thing to do is to switch on the TV or the computer and let an impersonal screen entertain you while your brain wastes away! Let me give you a healthy alternative. Simple science projects. Wait - before you run - science .. (Science)

Dancing to the Same Score

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 MaAnna Stephenson (July 15, 2008)  One of the most famous experiments in physics is a simple yet profound example of the dual nature of light. It is called the “two-slit experiment. " It was first conducted by English polymath, Thomas Yong around 1800 and validated the wave theory of light, overturning Newton's corpuscular ideas. Neils Bohr used it to develop the Principle of Complementarity showing that light was .. (Science)

Importance of Biorhythm

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 Sturat Mitchel (July 11, 2008)  The term Biorhythm is made up of two words, ‘bio’ and ‘rhythm', which mean ‘life’ and ‘regular vibration’ respectively. So, together these two words mean that the regular vibration of life. In fact, the significance of Biorhythm lies on its conjugated meaning. This is why Biorhythm implies the regular vibration surrounding and governing the .. (Science)

All About Ecosystem

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 George Chao (July 11, 2008)  Contact with some sort of ecosystem is a daily occurrence for everyone. It surrounds us and is a part of everything we touch. The impact that humanity plays on the Earth's ecosystems is not realized by many people. Constant attention and wisdom is required to maintain this delicate balance. It is distressing that a vast majority of people are unaware of the way they effect their .. (Science)

Types of Chemical Reactions

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 Charles Dementor (July 11, 2008)  A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the conversion of reactants into product or products. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. A type of a chemical reaction is usually characterized by the type of chemical change, and it yields one or more products which are, in general, different from the reactants. Generally .. (Science)

William Herschel and the Biggest Telescope of the 18th Century

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 Will Kalif (July 09, 2008)  William Herschel was possibly the greatest astronomer of the 18th Century. He made many discoveries including the finding of Uranus. But his biggest claim to fame was his ability to build telescopes. Over his lifetime he hand-built over 400 telescopes including a giant that was over 40 feet long with a mirror that was almost 50 inches wide. He paved the way for many astronomers and .. (Science)

Mettler Toledo Unbeatable Scientific Performance

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 Fabian Toulouse (July 09, 2008)  There is no more esteemed name in the business of scales and measurement than Mettler Toledo, a company that has been creating its good name for over sixty years. For decades they have been manufacturing an astounding variety of instruments which offer the highest degree of precision and efficiency available. With equipment for laboratories, postal services, and food manufacturing and .. (Science)

Cyanide in Solid Samples

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 William Lipps (July 06, 2008)  Iron iron cyanide complexes, namely Prussian Blue and/or Turnbull's Blue are very insoluble compounds that form when soluble iron cyanide complexes contact dissolved iron in aqueous solution. These insoluble iron cyanide compounds become part of the biosolids during water treatment, or part of the sediment in stream deposits. The EPA has ruled that these compounds, though not toxic, be .. (Science)

Water Purification Technology Understanding the Methods of Water Purification

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 Michael Redmond (July 06, 2008)  The methods of water purification used by the bottled brands may not be that great. In fact, they are not even required to use a method of water purification technology, before they sell it to you. True, the label says “purified drinking water". But, the stuff that comes out of your tap has been through several methods of water purification and can truthfully be referred to as .. (Science)

Science and Education

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 Arun K (July 06, 2008)  The greatest blessing to humanity is the advent of Science for bringing social prosperity through spread of knowledge and education. Science has helped man to the sky, measure the depth of oceans and wrest from nature many of her hidden treasures. In recent times, it has transformed human life beyond all imagination. Through its advanced inventions and discoveries, Science has cast its .. (Science)

Air Transport a Marvelous Gift of Science

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 Arun K (July 06, 2008)  Science is a great blessing to mankind. It has transformed our life to a great extent from what it used to be few years back. The triumph of science is seen everywhere. Science has changed the face of the earth, the world has changed more during the past 100 years than during 4000 years before. In fact, we have ceased to look upon trains or motor cars, electric fans or telegraph or .. (Science)

Atomic Power and Its Impact

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 Arun K (July 06, 2008)  It was America which tested the atom bomb in the deserts of Mexico, but Otto Habur, a German scientist was the first to succeed in making the atom bomb by splitting the atom. For this he got the Nobel Prize for 1944 - 45. Later on, America dropped two atom bombs on Japan to bring the World War II to an end. The first was dropped on Hiroshima and the second on Nagasaki on 6th and 9th .. (Science)

Science in Daily Life

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 Arun K (July 06, 2008)  In the history of mankind, advent of Science is the greatest blessing. Science has come to relieve mankind from sufferings, ignorance and to control nature. It has been defined as a systematized body of wisdom and knowledge which can give rise to greater and greater inventions. Science has also been known as a faithful servant of man who serves all his life and as per the orders of man. . (Science)

Role of Scientists

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 Arun K (July 06, 2008)  The phenomenal progress of Science has brought about a revolution of development and prosperity in the modern age. Mankind is today living an entirely different life to what our forefathers used to live. The outlook of humanity has changed. Science has proved to be a great achievement for humanity and it has come to relieve mankind from all sufferings, pains, poverty and diseases. It is . (Science)

New Bird Study Demolishes Darwinian Tree of Life

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 Joel Kontinen (July 06, 2008)  The Tree of Life is a concept Charles Darwin used in his On The Origin of Species (1859) to explain the relationships of all forms of life. Since then, the concept has evolved considerably but has not been discarded. Even a recent study of birds is known as the Early Bird Assembling the Tree-of-Life Research Project. The five-year bird genome project, conducted by the Field Museum, has . (Science)

Firefly Watch Review

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 Matthew Dearing (July 06, 2008)  Where did all of the fireflies go? Generations of families have spent countless evenings spotting and catching little glowing bugs in our backyard. After the sun would set, seemingly hundreds of flashing lights would come out and float around outside. But, many are finding fewer of these flashes, and it is not yet clear what is causing an apparent decline in firefly populations. .. (Science)

Red Sky at Night

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 Mark Boardman (July 05, 2008)  Red sky at night, shepherd's delight. Red in the morning, shepherd's warning. This is probably the most famous of weather folklore and, as is so often the case, has been passed down through generations but has some basis in truth. As the sun sinks slowly down to the horizon at the end of the day, the colour of the sky depends on the nature of the air that the sunlight passes through. .. (Science)

Is Science a Blessing Or a Curse?

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 Rajesh Mohan (July 05, 2008)  The gifts of science are indisputable and countless. There can be no denying the fact that science has made so much progress that life of a man, society, nation and the world has advanced tremendously. The knowledge gained learn through science and scientific technology speaks volumes about man's ingenuity and skill. If all this was not achieved by science it would be no wonder that, .. (Science)

Science and Social Prosperity

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 Rajesh Mohan (July 05, 2008)  Science is the greatest blessing to mankind. It has transformed human life, Nothing better could happen in the history of mankind than the advent of Science and great uses of it to the social life of society. Before Science could cast its great effect on social life of humans it was all a world of sufferings, ignorance and hardship. Science came as a blessing to relieve society from .. (Science)

Summer Science Fair Projects Can Entertain Your Child and Give a Head Start on Next School Year

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 Madeline Binder (July 04, 2008)  Summer vacation can be filled with days of boredom for elementary-age children. Parents struggle to find activities which fill time, and, if on a budget, do not involve large expense. Planning several cool science projects can serve a dual purpose - keeping a child's mind busy and active and possibly discovering an award winning science project that can be used next school year, when a .. (Science)

Brain Imaging Secrets Revealed

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 Beate Rud (July 03, 2008)  Great things are happening in imaging science right now. Using a really spectacular method and doing some very painstaking and pioneering work, it became possible to watch cells at work in the living brain. The results of this effort are just beginning to flow in. Two fresh examples are top articles in the well-known scientific journals Science and Neuron, respectively. The first one .. (Science)

The Power of a Curved Line Known As Gravity

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 MaAnna Stephenson (July 03, 2008)  Since ancient times, many people have theorized why things fell toward the Earth. The ancient Greeks, Newton, and Einstein have all dramatically expanded our understanding. Even today, it is still a subject of debate as new experiments may shed light on a topic that is as old as the universe itself. Gravity is usually described as an attractive force. But, that force is actually a .. (Science)

Brahmagupta Invented Zero

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 Om Singh (July 02, 2008)  Zero is not just a word or a numeral but a symbol of the pride of the Indian nation and the fact that the eastern culture's research and development in the field of science and mathematics is the very foundation on which the medieval world's discoveries were made and yet more future ones still remain to be made through forgotten zeroes of the east. In this ever changing dynamic world .. (Science)

Hubble and James Webb Search For the Edge

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 James W Smith (June 30, 2008)  Its price tag was 500 million dollars in 1990. It certainly was a lot of money to pay for a telescope that circled the Earth and could not focus. A faulty mirror on the Hubble was the reason the expensive space telescope could not see. The Hubble would quickly become an object of ridicule and the subject of numerous jokes on late night television. In 1993, astronauts repaired that .. (Science)

The Processes of Refrigeration and Their Benefits

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 Caitlina Fuller (June 29, 2008)  Refrigeration is no simple subject. This is contrary to the common belief by many that refrigeration is mainly about cooling or coldness. The practice of refrigeration engineering is actually all about heat transfer. The term refrigeration could therefore be defined as heat energy removal so that a certain matter or space is colder than its surroundings. Heat energy is a form of energy .. (Science)

The Evolution of Modern Refrigeration

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 Caitlina Fuller (June 29, 2008)  Refrigeration, when reduced to its simplest meaning, is the removal of heat from an enclosed area and transferring it to a different space. Doing this would lower the temperature in the area where the heat was taken from. Cooling, a major part of refrigeration, is generally referred to as either a natural or artificial way of dissipating heat. The artificial process is what is referred .. (Science)

The Basics of Solar Power

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 Luke Graham (June 28, 2008)  Solar systems are composed of several individual components including arrays (multiple connected modules), inverters, controls, safety disconnects, and batteries. By assembling differing sizes of components together, systems can be built with varied power outputs to meet the demands of various loads. Like most electrical equipment, as solar technology evolves and consumer demand rises, . (Science)

Phages Natural Born Killers

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 Michael Jozefiak (June 27, 2008)  MRSA periodically hits the headlines in most cities throughout the world, but in any discussion concerning antibiotic-resistant bacteria, more generically know as MRSA, and of ways to fight them, mention must be made of bacteriohages, or ‘phages’ for short. Phages have successfully killed bacteria, strangely, without the intervention of any scientists, for billions of years .. (Science)

The Ice Age Cometh

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 Mark Boardman (June 26, 2008)  This winter (2007-2008) snow fall and snow cover has been at its greatest over North America, Siberia and China since 1966. And the Arctic ice sheet, which for so long has been all but doomed by modern climate models, has had a resurgence. Of course, this is just one winter and the next one could continue the warming trend of the last 2 decades. However there are now two big reasons why . (Science)

Equine Foot Function New Research Calls Into Question Current Beliefs of Equine Foot Function

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 Kc La Pierre (June 26, 2008)  There are several theories that account for equine foot function, most refer to the function of the digital cushion-lateral cartilage anatomy. Close examination of the digital cushion and the relationship it holds to the lateral cartilage anatomy, and surrounding tissue calls into question current theory. The two most widely accepted theories on foot function are the depression theory, .. (Science)

Einstein and His Famous Equation

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 MaAnna Stephenson (June 26, 2008)  When most people hear the name Einstein, the next thought is usually his famous equation, E=mc2. Believe it or not, Einstein's Nobel Prize was not awarded for this revolutionary discovery, but for his lesser known paper on the Photo-Electric Effect also published in the same year. A good deal of the confusion about Relativity Theory is that most folks think it is one theory. It is .. (Science)

The Star Gliese 876 and Its Planets

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 Dave Spates (June 26, 2008)  In this topic I am going to babble about the Red Dwarf Star Gliese 876, which is host to 3 exo- planets. Since Gliese 876 is a red dwarf star, that means that it is a fairly cool for a star, burning at about 3500K, and it is guessed to have only 32% of the mass our sun has. Since it is one of the tinier stars out there Gliese 876 cannot be seen with the naked eye, you would need the aid . (Science)

Chromatography Solving Real World Mysteries With Science

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 Fabian Toulouse (June 26, 2008)  Solving mysteries has always fascinated human beings. We love mystery novels and crime dramas because we want to deduce who the culprit is. In real life, advances in science also deal with deducing a mystery. Instead of private investigators, processes like chromatography frequently solve real-world mysteries. Chromatography is a process that helps scientists, law enforcement, and even . (Science)

Integrating New Neurons Into Neural Networks

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 Yovan P. Putra (June 25, 2008)  In the past, the field of neuro research has a rigid belief that people can not grow new neurons well into old age. But a remarkable discovery in 1998 changed it all. It's now believed that people can grow new neurons while they're aging. Now the focus of the studies mainly placed in finding out how these new neurons integrate themselves gracefully into existing neural networks without .. (Science)

Potential Of Groundwater Resources In New Spring For Production Of Mineral Water

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 Risno Lamin (June 25, 2008)  DETERMINATION OF RECHARGE AREA AND GROUNDWATER AGE 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Fresh or mineral water is very important in this new era. Production of fresh or mineral water can be done by make the well or explore from springs. The problem of the water explored by making well is the threat of the sea water infiltration to the land. The salty water is very dangerous for .. (Science)

A History of Magnets and Their Many Uses

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 Ellen Bell (June 23, 2008)  Magnets have been in use for thousands of years. The first known reference to magnetism dates back to the 4th century B. C. E. from a Chinese literary work called “Book of the Devil Valley Master. " In this book, it was written that “lodestone attracts iron to it. " Lodestone is a type of magnetite metal with a special crystalline structure that can naturally create a .. (Science)

Pitfalls of Modern Medical Science (3) Isolationism

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 William Sun Ph.D. (June 23, 2008)  Modern medical science concentrates on searching for internal causes of illnesses such as germs and viruses inside the human body. Most of medical researchers and practitioners do not care about the natural and social environments surrounding an individual person and patient, because they think that the causes of illnesses and diseases are only reducible to smaller parts of the body. In . (Science)

Dinosaur Graveyard Found in Utah

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 Joel Kontinen (June 22, 2008)  A large dinosaur graveyard has been unearthed near Hanksville, Utah. Dinosaur experts have characterised the new find as “really amazing". As recently reported by National Geographic News, paleontologists have found at least two carnivorous or meat-eating dinosaurs, a dinosaur with armored plates that is probably a Stegosaurus, and four sauropods or huge dinosaurs with long necks .. (Science)

Non locality and Entanglement

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 MaAnna Stephenson (June 22, 2008)  Einstein called non-locality “spooky action at a distance". He was concerned that the early founders of quantum mechanics were attributing the effects we see in the manifested, material world to be initiated by non-local causes, meaning that they were not measurable in the physical realm. Einstein's entire argument against non-local causes involves a condition known as .. (Science)

Mating Behaviour of Indian Wall Lizard Hemidactylus Flaviviridis (Ruppell)

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 Ranjeeta Bhattacharjee (June 20, 2008)  INTRODUCTION: The Indian wall lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Rupell) is a common Indian lizard having reported breeding season of March to June. The lizards, unlike mammals, donot mate from back, as it is not possible for most lizards, having hard, spiny scales on back. Rather, the male lizard approaches the female from the side, with slight biting on the neck of the female, and .. (Science)

The Role of Genetics in Microbial Diversity

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 Sasha Farina (June 19, 2008)  In the past, when a scientist was curious about the diversity of bacteria in an environment, the traditional way of gathering data would be to collect a sample and simply attempt to grow the bacteria on a plate. This method not only arises in many random and muddled colonies that can become tedious and confusing to separate, but is also approximately a 99% inaccurate representation of .. (Science)

Fun Science Projects

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 Tyler Horvath (June 19, 2008)  Hello, I have prepared a couple really fun science projects that any student can do at home with household items. These Fun science projects should be done with adult supervision. The first fun science project is called “The Balloon Inflater" MATERIALS: A carbonated soft drink in a bottle, a balloon, and a twist tie from a bread or a garbage bag. WHAT TO DO: 1. Place the .. (Science)

Recycling Seal Lead Acid Batteries

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 Dan Hagopian (June 18, 2008)  Seal Lead Acid batteries have a long history of being one of the most environmentally friendly resources on the free market and are actually “greener" then soft drink cans, beer cans, newspapers, glass bottles, and tires. Indeed lead-acid batteries are an environmental success story of our time. More than 97 percent of all battery lead is recycled. This is almost twice as much as .. (Science)




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