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Science & Reference & Education Article Category
Articles about or concerning Science, Environment, Scientific Events, Ecology, Genetics, Scientific Fields, Scientific Advances, Disease, Scientific Commentary, Biology, and Human Anatomy.
Latest Articles

Chemistry Blood Tests - The Basics

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 Elizabeth Blake (December 12, 2008)  The medical/hospital laboratory is divided into departments, such as Hematology, Microbiology, Blood Banking, and Chemistry. This article discusses typical Chemistry tests your doctor might order. Chemistry tests can be ordered singly, such as glucose (blood sugar), or in groups called “panels. " Different labs offer different panels. Typically, the following panels will be .. (Science)

How Did Life Begin? New Research Suggests Meteorites May Have Helped

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 Joel Kontinen (December 12, 2008)  Since Charles Darwin's day, theories about the birth of life have come and gone. Darwin famously speculated about life having begun in a warm pond. Researchers tested the idea in 2006 and found it wanting. They examined hot puddles in Kamchatka, Russia, and Mount Lassen in California and discovered that “hot acidic waters containing clay do not provide the right conditions for .. (Science)

Human Physiology and Anatomy Study

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 C. S Murphy (December 12, 2008)  Let's face it - human physiology and anatomy study is far from interesting. It doesn't help that most human physiology and anatomy study guides are so thick they can make even a bookworm lose interest at first sight. However, it is a must for more than people in the medical profession or those aspiring to be medical professionals. Even injury law attorneys, chiropractors, paramedics, .. (Science)

Human Anatomy Study Guide For Students

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 C. S Murphy (December 12, 2008)  Are you a recent enrollee into a medical course struggling with the jargon in the study of human anatomy and physiology? The struggle is understandable. Perhaps everyone who has ever dabbled in the amazing science of the human body has experienced the same thing when they first started out. But that doesn't mean you have to grind through the entire course; that would just make you hate .. (Science)

Anatomy & Physiology Study For Lawyers

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 C. S Murphy (December 12, 2008)  You're realizing anatomy and physiology study is not just for those in the medical field. You're an injury law attorney. But you find yourself up against doctors. Yes, doctors as witnesses on either side. You realize that their expert opinions are as varied as yours and your colleagues! Now you wish you knew what doctors knew; you wish you knew about the human body like they do. Anatomy . (Science)

A Painless Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

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 C. S Murphy (December 12, 2008)  Studying the human anatomy and physiology is not just for doctors and surgeons or those training to be one. If you're a nurse or a qualified paramedic, you'd know it's your business as well. In many instances, you find yourself dealing with the human body in life and death situations such knowledge becomes vital. Although you might have had a bit of anatomy and physiology courses when .. (Science)

Ankylosaurus Facts

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 Sunil Tanna (December 11, 2008)  There are some iconic dinosaurs that practically everybody recognizes, often because we have seen them in films, TV, books, or sometimes on items such as clothing or toys. Some examples of such dinosaurs include Triceratops, Stegosaurus, the massive sauropod dinosaurs such as Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus) and Diplodocus, and, of course, Tyrannosaurus Rex. One other dinosaur which has not .. (Science)

Dinosaur Facts

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 Sunil Tanna (December 11, 2008)  Most children, and quite a few adults too, love dinosaurs. After all, what is not to love about a gigantic extinct animal? But although you may have seen plenty of dinosaurs in movies (like for example the Jurassic Park series of movies), in TV, books, and even in children's toys, how much do you really know about dinosaurs? Here a few facts about dinosaurs that may interest you: 1. .. (Science)

Chemistry - Matter Waves and Uncertainty

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 Darrell Causey (December 11, 2008)  The work of Planck, Einstein, and Compton led to the acceptance of the quantum theory of energy that stated light comes in discrete packets of energy called photons and though mostly wave light also has particle properties. Their work inspired Bohr to develop an atomic model explaining the behavior of electrons. However, Bohr's model was doomed to fail because he modified classical .. (Science)

Simple Science Fair Projects For Winning Science Experiments

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 Dee Schrock (December 11, 2008)  Simple science fair projects are great if you have a limited amount of time to complete them, or if you just want to do a quick project for fun. Science fair projects don't have to be long, involved and complex to be good. Simple science fair projects do great in science fairs as long as you can show that you learned something from the project, and are able to present it in an eye .. (Science)

Middle School Science Experiments Made Fun and Easy

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 Dee Schrock (December 11, 2008)  Middle school science experiments should be more complex than the ones you would have done in elementary school. At this level, the science experiments you are doing will be preparing you for the more involved science projects you will be doing in high school, when you will most likely be entering science fairs to compete for prizes. By this grade, you will need to do your project .. (Science)

Hemoglobin and Blood Cell Count Tests - The Basics

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 Elizabeth Blake (December 11, 2008)  When your blood is drawn and sent to a laboratory for testing, a specially trained lab tech will test your blood. Lab techs typically have either a Bachelor's college degree in Medical Technology, or an Associate's degree. To be certified, they must take and pass a national examination. A phlebotomist (blood drawer) or a lab aide will typically draw your blood. Sometimes a nurse will .. (Science)

Ideas For a Science Fair Project - Finding Winning Science Fair Experiments

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 Dee Schrock (November 24, 2008)  There are so many different ideas for a science fair project that it can be hard to choose just one! To begin, you need to think of a topic that interests you. You can start by looking at some of the different categories for science fair projects. There are many to choose from, such as astronomy, zoology, chemistry, earth science, engineering, environmental science, microbiology, .. (Science)

Interesting Science Experiments That Wow the Crowd

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 Dee Schrock (November 24, 2008)  Interesting science experiments are likely going to get the best grades. Judges are used to seeing all the same old projects and if yours is interesting it will definitely stand out. There are endless topics to choose from, so the first step is to narrow down your choices and choose a topic that interests you. If you are bored with your project, it will show in your work! One .. (Science)

3rd Grade Science Projects Made Fun & Easy

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 Dee Schrock (November 24, 2008)  There are plenty of third grade science projects that will be fun for your child to do. Kids this age love to learn new things and find out answers to questions on their own. Encourage them to choose a topic that interests them so it will be fun for them and they will see it through until the end. If they choose a topic that bores them, the parent may end up doing the majority of the .. (Science)

Quick Science Experiments Made Fun and Easy

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 Dee Schrock (November 22, 2008)  Quick science experiments are easy to come by, and can be just as interesting as the more complex and time consuming projects available. It's simply a matter of find a quick science experiment that interests you. Think of a question you would like answered and put it into action. An example of a simple experiment would be to see which type of water ants prefer more, sugar water, salt .. (Science)

Easy Science Fair Project Ideas

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 Dee Schrock (November 22, 2008)  Easy science fair project ideas can be found anywhere. All you need to do is choose a topic that you're interested in learning about; you're going to be more enthused if you're actually interested in the project, and remember that you don't need to re-invent the wheel. Judges just want to know that you learned something from your project. It's even okay to take an existing project and .. (Science)

Simple Science Projects For Kids

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 Dee Schrock (November 22, 2008)  Simple science projects are perfect for younger children in elementary school or people with a limited amount of time to complete them. Science projects don't have to be complex to be good, in fact as long as you're answering a question with your project then it's a success! The important thing is that you learn something from it. Simple science project ideas can be found anywhere, just . (Science)

The Oceans' Wave Power

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 Kevin Rockwell (November 22, 2008)  For more than 200 years inventors worldwide have filed patents for wave-power technology of a dazzling variety of designs-bobbing objects ("ducks"), buoys, articulated rafts, floating bags, overspills, and many others. There has been no shortage of ideas. Many of these ideas are in fact technically feasible, so it seems a shame that this renewable energy resource has not been much used. . (Science)

Chemistry - The Nature of Light Or Electromagnetic Radiation

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 Darrell Causey (November 21, 2008)  In the 1700's there were two theories on the nature of light. One theory, proposed by Sir Isaac Newton, suggested that light consisted of a stream of tiny particles called corpuscles. The other theory, proposed by Christiaan Huygens, explained that light consisted of waves. Who was right? Well most of the evidence pointed to waves, but there was more to the story. By the 1800's most .. (Science)

Is Hydrogen Generator the Best Option in Laboratories?

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 Mike Kirsten (November 21, 2008)  In laboratories, hydrogen gas is used more than any other gas. The popularity of hydrogen gas is mainly due to its advantages of resolution, speed of analysis, as a fuel gas for GC-FID applications and sensitivity over other gases. There are several options for supplying hydrogen gas including point-of-use hydrogen cylinders, multi-cylinder configurations, and hydrogen generators. .. (Science)

1st Grade Science Projects and Ideas

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 Dee Schrock (November 21, 2008)  1st grade science projects are always fun. There are lots of interesting ways for young kids to experiment, and a lot of them will probably favor doing an experiment on an animal or a bug, or perhaps an experiment with plants. A great 1st grade science project for this age group should be kept simple and fairly quick, and hopefully something that can hold the child's interest long .. (Science)

4th Grade Science Experiments and Ideas

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 Dee Schrock (November 21, 2008)  4th grade science experiments don't need to be overly involved and they can usually be done alone, with minimal help from teachers or parents. Children this age are very curious and full of energy so they should have no trouble coming up with a topic to experiment. One simple science experiment they may want to try is to see if draining water always spirals in the same direction. This .. (Science)

An Ocean on Mars?

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 Jeffrey Caminsky (November 21, 2008)  Did Mars once have an ocean? Recent information from Mars provides support for this controversial idea, one that would move science fiction from bookshelves one step closer to reality. Analyzing data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer of NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, an international team of scientists detected signs that suggest the presence of liquid oceans over much of the surface of .. (Science)

7th Grade Science Fair Project Ideas

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 Dee Schrock (November 21, 2008)  7th grade science fair project ideas are likely more involved than the projects you've done in previous years. The science fair at your school is likely more competitive for your age group and there's a good chance your peers will be putting a lot more time and effort into their projects than they have in previous years, so you'll want to do the same for your 7th grade science projects. . (Science)

An Introduction to Laboratory Mixers

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 Mike Kirsten (November 20, 2008)  Laboratory mixer is one of the most used laboratory mixing equipments. Whether it is your school laboratory or a pharmaceutical lab, laboratory mixers are needed everywhere. The main function of laboratory mixers are to mix, emulsify and dissolve the samples properly. Types of Laboratory Mixers For mixing purposes in laboratories you can use one of the following basic types of lab .. (Science)

3rd Grade Science Fair Projects and Ideas

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 Dee Schrock (November 20, 2008)  3rd grade science fair projects are a lot of fun because at this age children are eager to explore the world around them and find out how things work. They are constantly wanting to know the answer to the question “What happens if I do this. . . " and therefore they will likely come up with many different experiments they'd like to try. It may be difficult to decide on just one! .. (Science)

Second Grade Science Projects and Ideas

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 Dee Schrock (November 20, 2008)  Second grade science projects are simple and fun to do. You should pick a topic that can hold the interest of the children. At this age they are just learning how to figure things out for themselves, instead of being spoon fed information, and they're very eager to learn new things. It's very beneficial to children to start doing experiments at this age; it stimulates their mind and .. (Science)

9th Grade Science Projects and Ideas

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 Dee Schrock (November 20, 2008)  9th grade science projects are more involved than elementary school projects, but still involve the same basic requirements, a question, a hypothesis and a conclusion. However in high school you need to focus more on the presentation of your project, as high school students are expected to be familiar with word processing programs and printers. You will also need to reference any place . (Science)

4th Grade Science Project Ideas - Simple Science Projects That Wow the Crowd

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 Dee Schrock (November 18, 2008)  4th grade science project ideas are fairly easy to do and can be lots of fun for the class. Kids this age are naturally curious and full of energy so it's fairly simple to come up with a fun project that can keep their attention. They're always asking questions, trying to further their knowledge of the world around them so think about questions they have asked you because there's a .. (Science)

Quick Science Projects Made Fun & Easy

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 Dee Schrock (November 18, 2008)  Quick science projects are great when you have a limited time frame to complete them or are just looking for a fun way to pass some time on a boring afternoon. There are many options when you're looking for quick science fair projects, such as how much salt does it take to sink an egg? All you need for this project is a glass, an egg, water and salt, and you just put the egg in the .. (Science)

5th Grade Science Project - Simple Science Projects That Wow the Crowd

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 Dee Schrock (November 18, 2008)  5th grade science project ideas can be a little more complex than the previous grades as the children are at the age where they can do the majority of the experiment on their own, with guidance from their teacher or parents. It should still be a fairly straight forward project mind you, and one that they're quite interested in because if they pick a topic they don't really care for .. (Science)

What is Leachate? And Garbage Juice Explained

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 Steve D Evans (November 18, 2008)  Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through any permeable material. Silage leachate is a form of leachate which is a serious environmental problem, however, when people refer to leachate they are usually talking about the contaminated water that is produced by water percolating through waste. Leachate is produced when water filters downward through a landfill, and as .. (Science)

LED Advances Lead to New Applications

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 Brian Bradshaw (November 10, 2008)  The outlook for Light Emitting Diode (LED) use is improving. Historically, the LED has been most commonly used as a state indicator, for example, as a “Power On" indicator. The light output from the LED was low, but the advantages for the designer were that the LED energy efficiency was terrific, was capable of “instant on" operation, and that the reliability and lifetime .. (Science)

Atomic Structure - The Basics

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 Elizabeth Blake (November 10, 2008)  Before we discuss the structure of atoms, we need to learn the terms MASS and WEIGHT. While we are on earth, the terms MASS and WEIGHT reflect the same thing. If we are on the moon, our weight will be less but our mass will be the same. It's been said that if you want to lose weight, go to the moon. If you want to lose mass, go on a diet and exercise. For our purposes in this article, .. (Science)

Fight Junk Science - Solar Panel Efficiency

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 Mark George (November 09, 2008)  Whenever something technical becomes popular, junk science appears. Solar energy is one of those subjects littered with junk science. Junk science is often behind the specifications given for solar energy systems, such as the key figure of efficiency. Sales people are very creative in how they specify the efficiency of the system they are trying to sell you. They may talk about the .. (Science)

Heart Development - A Paradigm of Cell Differentiation and Organogenesis

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 Vibha Rani (November 09, 2008)  Stems cells from the embryo are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM), embryonic ectoderm, and primordial germ cells of the fetal genital ridge and represent pluripotent undifferentiated cells capable of proliferation, cell-renewal and the generation of large numbers of differentiated cell progeny. As development proceeds and a stem cell become committed to a specific lineage or .. (Science)

Sodium Bicarbonate - A Chemical of Importance

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 Brian Ayling (November 08, 2008)  Chemicals are important parts of our everyday life. Different industries use chemicals in many ways. They can be used in their simplest forms or you can use them in their compound form. One of the most important chemical combinations that we use in our everyday life is Sodium Bicarbonate. If you have not recalled your chemistry lessons, a mixture of sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide .. (Science)

The Ongoing Search For the Lost City of Atlantis

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 Sid Credeur Jr (November 07, 2008)  One of the best known myths in history if that of “The Lost City of Atlantis". The Greek philosopher Plato was the first to acknowledge the existence of Atlantis in his dialogues “Timaeus" and “Critias". Plato's accounts have Atlantis lying “beyond the pillars of hercules" and being a island of great naval power that conquered parts of Africa and Western Europe. .. (Science)

Bigfoot - Myth Or Reality

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 Sid Credeur Jr (November 07, 2008)  The most well known creature and likely the most sought after one in and out of crypto zoological circles has to be Bigfoot also well known as ‘Sasquatch". Bigfoot has become a historical legend dating back centuries and is one of the most debated creatures as to its existence. The Sasquatch is alleged to be an ape-like creature inhabiting forest and woodlands, often described as .. (Science)

The Search For "Champ" - Lake Champlain Creature

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 Sid Credeur Jr (November 07, 2008)  The 109 mile long Lake Champlain is located on the boarders of New York and Vermont. Throughout the years it has been the home of a long time lake monster nicknamed Champ . The first sighting of champ in Lake Champlain was likely in 1819 by settlers to the area of Port Henry , New York. Sightings of champ continued on throughout the years with another documented sighting in 1883 by .. (Science)

Forensic Science Universities - How to Choose

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 Louis Zhang (October 07, 2008)  If you're looking to study at one of the top forensic science universities, it's important to look at the course offerings as well as the options at each of the colleges. Forensic science universities train students to become professional analysts of crime scene data by working with the latest technology. In order to gain the expertise needed, various top schools provide the latest lab . (Science)

What Are the Details Behind Gensona Genetic Testing?

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 Kevin McNabb (October 02, 2008)  The Interleukin Commitment Interleukin Genetic's goal is to provide the best available genetic information, to help you make intelligent lifestyle decisions related to nutrition, exercise, lifestyle habits and health care practices aimed at preserving your good health into your later years. Interleukin's state-of-the-art genetic testing laboratory is certified under the Clinical .. (Science)

The Geology of the Taygetos Mountains

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 Martyn Shuttleworth (October 02, 2008)  INTRODUCTION Greece records the highest level of seismic activity in Europe, and is an area where the geology is young and dynamic. Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence, and have shaped the course of Greek civilisation and culture. Titanic, subterranean forces have moulded some fascinating and unique geological features, sculpting rugged mountain ranges and precipitous, tumbling .. (Science)

The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

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 George Durrell (October 01, 2008)  The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a process for amplifying very tiny amounts of DNA such that they can be visualized and assessed or used in further scientific processes. PCR is widely used in almost all branches of biology including molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, environmental science, food science, biotechnology, forensic science, and clinical diagnostics. The PCR .. (Science)

Kids' Science - Gravity For Beginners

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 Anthony Vecchioni (October 01, 2008)  Here's a science activity for kids that offers basic exposure to density and the law of gravity. It also gives your child an opportunity to engage in the trial and error method of problem solving. It's very simple and lots of fun. You'll be making a miniature version of hot air balloons. Each balloon should take about one minute to make. Your child will love helping to put the hot air .. (Science)

The Largest Dinosaurs to Roam the Earth

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 Amy Nutt (September 29, 2008)  It's relatively unclear and practically impossible to judge exactly which species of dinosaur was the largest, due to the fact that many of the fossil remains discovered to date aren't totally complete. Partial fossils have been discovered relatively recently that allude to the fact that there may have been dinosaurs that were much larger than what scientists had perceived to have been .. (Science)

What is MythBusters and What is it About?

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 Amy Nutt (September 29, 2008)  We have all heard or told an urban legend or two, maybe even contributed to their spread. What fascinates us the most about these legends is that, despite the grandiose tall tale aspects, these stories are most often based in fact. This is especially true of narratives that pertain to science. Now, if a person wanted to separate truth from fiction from such tales, they would first have . (Science)

9 Uses of DNA Testing

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 Matthew Pawlina (September 09, 2008)  Genetic analysis is gaining popularity quickly and a genetic testing resource as well as information is available widely on the internet, in magazines, as well as in libraries. Advances in science are finding many uses in the field of health, forensics, and genealogy. While a few years ago genetic testing or DNA testing was limited to governmental and research institutions today any .. (Science)

Processes Involved in Blavatsky's Writings and Its Effects

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 Edi Bilimoria (September 09, 2008)  elena Petrovna Blavatsky (HPB) demonstrated the Siddhis (psychic-spiritual faculties) of clairvoyance, clairaudience, and the powers of projection, precipitation and being en rapport. These were all used in her writings on Occult science and Meta Physics which may be categorized into seven kinds of processes. We outline them below but it is emphasized that none of the above processes .. (Science)




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