The majority of the companies offering DNA testing services provide DNA analysis and counseling for researching biological relationships. Most of these laboratories offer DNA testing kits at no charge for potential customers, in order to improvise on their database.
DNA testing, DNA typing or DNA profiling is one of promising techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species. The process uses samples of their DNA for identifying their genetics. In 1985, the process was publicly launched by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester. Genetic fingerprinting exploits highly variable repeating sequences called microsatellites in finding the differences between two human beings. The process states that two unrelated humans are likely to have different numbers of microsatellites at a given locus. By using PCR to detect the number of repeats at several loci, the process establishes a match that is unlikely to have arisen by coincidence.
DNA testing is subject to the legal code of the jurisdiction of the state where it is being undertaken. In most cases, testing is undertaken voluntary but incase of search warrant or court order, the testing is made mandatory. Several jurisdictions have now started assembling databases containing DNA information of convicts. The United Kingdom has the most extensive DNA database in the world, with over two million records by the end of 2005.
The companies offering these kits access an individual’s case to determine the type of testing best suited for him, i. e. , either a personal DNA or legal DNA test. They also provide necessary materials for DNA collections, and the results are given to the person in three to five working days. Mostly, DNA reports produced by the testing are fully accredited by the law, because most of the companies comply by methods specifically drawn by the state laws.
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