Protein Synthesis

 


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The process of Protein Synthesis involves many parts of the cell, the main stages occur in the nucleus and ribosomes. Unlike other similar productions, this process is very complex and precise and therefore must be done in proper sequence to work effectively.

The process involves two stages these are transcription and translation. With in the process of DNA synthesis a form of RNA is used called mRNA this is used to transport a template to the ribosomes where translation occurs, mRNA makes protein synthesis must more efficient.

The first stage transcription involves the DNA unwinding by breaking the hydrogen bonds and then a region will be copied to make RNA; this is known as a cistron. A strand of this DNA will act as the template and free nucleotides will assemble next to there complementary bases. This process involves an enzyme known as RNA polymerase which will move along this strand and assembles the mRNA nucleotides into a strand. After the actions of this enzyme the DNA will wind back up by reforming hydrogen bonds. Mirror images of the DNA will now be formed and will pass out of the nucleus to free ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes.

The next stage is translation although to take place it requires tRNA as well as mRNA which is in the shape of a clover leaf because of molecules looping back on each other because of hydrogen bonds. The job of this is to pick up amino acids and transport them to the ribosomes and so it has a site where amino acids attach. There is 20 types of tRNA one for each amino acids the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA is known as activation.

At the ribosomes there are 2 sites known as the P and A sites the ribosomes move along the mRNA. The ribosome attaches to two specified codons and tRNA matching the Condons attaches to the ribosome and an anticondon site on the tRNA attaches to the mRNA codon. At the P site a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids and then the ribosome moves across and the energy created by breaking the bond between the tRNA and the releasing of the amino acid is used to form a peptide bond for the previous and next amino acid. More then one ribosome can read this code at any one time so a large quantity of proteins can b produced. The arrangement of the peptide chain depends on the arrangement of codons from mRNA, this is what allows for different proteins.

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