The real estate cycle, like the business cycle, refers to the activity of the real estate market as it reacts to the forces of supply and demand.
Supply and demand.
When demand for a product, such as housing, exceeds the supply, the price for the product tends to increase. In real estate this period is often called seller's market. Higher prices encourage the suppliers, in this case homebuilders to increase production. As production increased, more of the demand is satisfied until a point is reached where production outperforms demand. At that point, prices begin to full and production will diminish until demand catches up with supply, and the cycle begins again. This period is called a buyers market.
Factors influencing real estate circles.
The availability of mortgage funding affects both supply and demand for housing. In most cases the buyer does not have sufficient assets to purchase a house outright. Most housing is either built purchased with money borrowed. The availability and cost of this money directly affects both the supply and demand for housing. If a local area is experiencing prosperity there should be funds available to finance the construction and purchase of housing.
Demographics refer to a study and description of the population of an area. Demographics included such factor as page, education, gross income, disposable income, number of family members, and savings and spending patterns. Also studied are patterns of migration and establishment of employment centers.
A major factor that has impacted both the availability of housing and mortgage funding has been changing social behavior patterns of the population. In modern example is the increase in the portion of the population that is in its prime home buying years. Both baby boomers and their children are now seeking housing, which has been a major factor in demand for housing that has pushed up prices in the past decade. High divorce rates and a trend toward later marriages have also stimulated demand because there are few people per household.
Because the national government is the largest borrower in the country, its activities and have a huge influence on the economy. Deficit spending by Congress forces the government to borrow money, making less money available for construction and home loans. On the other hand, action by the Federal Reserve to loosen credit with rapidly increase capital loan money supplies.
This regulation takes the form of federal, state and local tax laws, environmental regulations, lending laws, local zoning and building codes. The vast majority of these laws and regulations have been created to protect the environment, promote public safety or to protect consumers from predatory lending practices. Predatory lending includes usury, deception and fraud. Individual home ownership is encouraged and the federal and state levels by the provision for the home mortgage interest deduction in the income tax codes. However, at the local level, properties are subject to property taxes. These taxes are necessary to provide local services such as streets, lightning, schools, fire and police protection. In some areas, communities have implemented a impact fees. Impact fees are charged to all new housing that is developed within the community and I levied to pay for community infrastructure.
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