The Old Testament is also known as the Hebrew Bible. Written between 12th and 2nd Centuries BC, the bible includes the histories, and prophecies of ancient times. Originally, the bible was written in classic Hebrew. So, the names in the bible are originally in classic Hebrew which is also known as biblical Hebrew.
The biblical Hebrew is a Semitic language which is popularly spoken from 1200 BC to 60 AD. The biblical Hebrew ceases at the end of the first temple. The first temple is more commonly known as the Solomon Temple. The temple is mainly for worships and sacrifices. This practice is popularly known as Kobarnot in Ancient Judaism.
The kingdom of Judaism was destroyed. The Jews cease the use of Hebrew language and adapts the use of Aramaic language. The Aramaic originates from Southwest Asia 1000 BC. In 20th Century, the Hebrew language comes alive as the language becomes the official language of the state of Israel. The book of Ezra, and Daniel were written in Aramaic in some parts. During the time of Jesus, the Aramaic is the spoken language. Until the time of Islam, the Aramaic remained the spoken language in the Middle East Asia.
The El which means God is dominant in the Hebrew names like Michael (God like), Daniel (God is my Judge), Joel (willed Jehovah is God), Noel (birth of God), Raphael (healer of God), and Gabriel (God is my strength). The prefix of Jeho, and Jo are common as well like Jonathan (Gift from God), and Joseph (God is add). The suffix of Jah and Iah are common as well like Elijah (Jehovah is God), and Isaiah (helper of God).
The rise of the Greek influence on Eastern Mediterranean paves the way to the translation of the Jewish Tanakh which is the Jewish Bible. And, the Jews started to adapt the Greek names. Nevertheless, the Septuagint which is the Greek version of the Jewish bible contains many Greek names.
The New Testament (which is written mostly by Saint Paul) talks about the teachings of Jesus and his disciples. The New Testament also includes some epistles letters. Originally, the New Testament is written in Ancient Greek. The names in the New Testament are a mix of Hebrew, Greek, and Roman names, but many of the names are Hebrew and Aramaic origin.
In Hebrew, Israel means a person seeing God as if God perseveres. In Greek, Israel is divided into three parts. Is means powerful. Ra means king. El means son of God.
The Jewish, Christian, and some Muslim use the Hebrew names. Nevertheless, Hebrew names are not purely Hebrew in origin. Many Hebrew names originate from Egyptian, Aramaic, Persian, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Spanish, and English.
The introduction of Latin into the Hebrew names is thru the Greeks. For example, Jesus and Maria are from Latin origin. Additionally, some Hebrew names are already Latin like Mark which is Marcus in Latin.
With the rise of Islam, the Arabic become the spoken language in the Middle East Asia. The Arabic went as far as North Africa. The Quran which is the Islam Bible contains many Hebrew and Aramaic origin. With some Jewish and Christian fell into the Arab Islam Rule, the Jewish and Christian adapts some Arabic names.
As James I of England orders the translation of Jewish Tanakh from Hebrew to English, it resulted in many more forms of Hebrew names. The Hebrew names resemble closer to Hebrew than Latin. For example, the Asshur (Assyria) and Shem (Sem) are name of place in Hebrew. During that time, some names already exists in English form such as John, Mary, and James. Those names do not need translation.
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