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What Is The Brain?

 


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The brain is the organ in a person's skull that controls the functions of all of the other organs. Together, the brain and spine make up the central nervous system. The brain is responsible for the experience of the five senses (taste, touch, sight, hearing and smell). The brain is also the seat of thought, language, personality, creativity and memory. The brain controls movement, sensation, balance, and coordination. In order to do its job, the brain requires an enormous amount of the oxygen and nutrient energy that a person takes in regularly.

The brain is comprised of nerve cells (called neurons) which carry signals, and the cells which support the nerve cells (called glial cells ). There are a number of different types of glial cells, all with different names and functions. The glial cells outnumber the neurons in the brain by a ratio of 10:1

Brain Tumor Symptoms

Depending on the location and size of the tumor, symptoms experienced by each patient may vary. Most of the common symptoms are due to increased intracranial pressure as the growing tumor affects surrounding structures:

* Frequent headaches (reported by 50% of patients)

* Blurry vision

* Nausea and/or vomiting

* Personality or cognitive changes

Other symptoms are site-specific, including seizures, speech impairment, weakness or numbness on one side and problems with coordination, balance or mobility.

Types of Brain Tumors

There are many different types of brain tumors, based on what cells are affected and how they appear under a microscope. Tumors can be classified into four general categories:

1)Gliomas

2)Astrocytoma

3)Grade I (pilocytic astrocytoma): slow growing, with little tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain tissue. Most common in children and adolescents.

4)Grade II (diffuse astrocytoma): fairly slow-growing, with some tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain tissue. Mostly seen in young adults.

5)Grade III (anaplastic/malignant astrocytoma): these tumors grow rather quickly and infiltrate surrounding brain tissue.

6)Grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM): an extremely aggressive and lethal form of brain cancer. Unfortunately, it is the most common form of brain tumor in adults, accounting for 67% of all astrocytomas.

7)Oligodendroglioma

8)Ependymoma

Tests on your cancer cells

Your breast cancer cells can be tested to see if they have ‘hormone receptors’ or biological therapy receptors. There are oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. You may hear your doctor talk about ‘your oestrogen receptor status', ‘ER status’ or ‘PR status’. Sometimes, doctors may say you are ‘ER positive’ or ‘ER negative’.

Treatment

1)Surgery

When possible, brain tumors are removed through surgery. While many can be removed with little or no damage to the brain, others are located where surgical removal is difficult or impossible without destroying critical parts of the brain.

Brain damage caused by surgery can lead to partial paralysis, changes in sensation (feeling), weakness and poor thinking. Even so, removing a tumor is necessary when it threatens important brain structures. Even when it can't cure a malignancy, surgery can help reduce the size of the tumor, ease symptoms and help determine the type of tumor

2)Radiation Therapy

3)Chemotherapy

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