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Understand Water Treatment Process in 45 key knowledge points.

 


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Drinking water treatment is any sort of process which really improves the drinking quality of water to further to make it more better and other purpose.

Their main usage could be used for the drinking, agriculture, water supply for industrial purpose and other many important usages based on quality of water.

Before going for any usage unwanted components and other chemicals heavy metals are being removed for its specific end usage.

There are many applications in water treatment. Some of them require extremely high water quality, but they are relatively less strict. Nowadays there are more and more people entering the water treatment industry. Here are some key knowledge points about water treatment terminology which is being used in water treatment industry could be useful to understand the whole treatment process.

1. Raw water: refers to natural water without any treatment or tap water in the city, also called raw water.

2. Clarification water: water from which suspended impurities in raw water are removed.

3. Demineralized water: refers to water in which the cations and anions in the water are substantially removed or reduced to a certain extent. Desalination methods include distillation, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and the like.

4. Turbidity: refers to the degree of turbidity of water, which is the optical effect produced by the presence of certain suspended matter (including colloidal matter) in the water. The unit is expressed in NTU. Turbidity is one of the main characteristics for judging whether or not water is contaminated in appearance. The standard unit of turbidity is defined as a turbidity of 1 degree by 1 mg of SiO 2 .

5. Flocculant: An agent that causes the colloidal particles to form a bridge and flocculate.

6. Total alkalinity: refers to the total amount of substances that can neutralize strong acid in water.

7. Acidity: refers to the total amount of substances that can neutralize the strong base in water.

8. Hardness: refers to some metal ions in water that are prone to form precipitates, usually referred to as calcium and magnesium ions.

9. Water Conductivity: The conductance of a solution between two parallel electrodes with a cross-sectional area of ??1 cm 2 and a distance of 1 cm at a certain temperature. It can indirectly indicate the content of dissolved salts in water.

10. Water Resistivity: It is also an indicator of the conductivity of water. The greater the resistivity of water, the worse the conductivity of water, and the less ions it contains. Its common unit is MΩ. CM. It is inversely related to conductivity. For example, if the conductivity of water is 0.2 μs/cm, its resistivity is 1/0.2 = 5 (MΩ. CM).

11. TDS (Soluble Total Solids): The remaining inorganic matter after filtering off the suspended solids (SS) and colloids and evaporating to see all the water. The unit is ppm or mg/l and can be measured with a TDS meter. It also reflects the ion content of the water. It has a rough correspondence with conductivity: for a sodium chloride reference solution, a TDS value of 1 ppm corresponds to a conductivity of 2 μs/cm.

12. Water pH: The relative amount of acid and base in the solution. The pH is a measure of the negative logarithm (log) of the hydrogen ion concentration in the water. The pH value is 0-14, the pH is 7.0 and the water is neutral; when the pH is less than 7.0, the water is acidic; the pH is greater than 7.0. Then the water is alkaline.

13. Water Alkalinity: Alkalinity refers to the content of a substance that can accept neutralization reaction of [H+] ions and strong acids in water. The alkalinity-producing substances in water are mainly carbonate alkalinity produced by carbonates and bicarbonate alkalinity produced by hydrogen carbonates, and hydroxide alkalinity generated by the presence of hydroxides. To make a drinkable its is neccessary to be filtered with aqua alkaline water filter .

14. SDI: Pollution Index - used to measure the amount of suspended solids in the raw water used in the reverse osmosis system.

15. Ozone: An unstable, highly active form of oxygen produced by natural or high-pressure electric charges through the air. It is an excellent oxidant and disinfectant.

16. Residual chlorine: The water is chlorinated and disinfected. After contact for a certain period of time, the remaining chlorine remains in the water.

17. Total Escherichia coli: The total coliform group refers to a group of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria that can ferment lactose when grown at 37 and produce acid-producing genotypes without Bacillus within 24 hours. Total coliform refers to the number of total coliforms contained per liter of water sample.

18. Recovery rate: refers to the ratio of the product water flow to the influent flow rate produced by the system.

19. Desalination rate: A parameter reflecting the performance of the membrane. Generally, the desalination rate of the first-order RO membrane system is above 97%. Can be calculated simply: (raw water conductivity - conductivity of product water) / raw water conductivity.

20. Salt content: The salt content of water, also called the degree of mineralization, is the amount of salt contained in the water. Since various salts in water are generally present in the form of ions, the salt content can also be expressed as the sum of the amount of various cations in water and the amount of anions.

21. Precipitation: One of the technical methods of wastewater treatment. Can be divided into physical precipitation and chemical precipitation. The precipitate usually referred to is a physical precipitation, that is, a method of gravity separation.

22. Reclaimed Water: A variety of explanations, the sewage project is called reclaimed water, and the factory is called reclaimed water, which is generally distinguished by water quality. It mainly refers to the non-potable water that can be reused within a certain range after the urban sewage or domestic sewage has been treated to meet certain water quality standards.

The quality of reclaimed water is between the upper water (drinking water) and the sewage (between domestic sewage). This is also the origin of the name of the water. People also call the system of supplying water as the middle water system.

23. Organic pollution: refers to some other biodegradable synthetic organic substances such as natural organic substances in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and fats. Mainly from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater.

24. Concentration polarization: Reverse osmosis Under the operating conditions, the salt on the surface of the membrane is concentrated, and there is a concentration difference between the salts in the same water. If the flow rate of the concentrated water is small and the flow rate is low, the water of the high content is salt. Can not be taken away in time, will form a high concentration difference on the surface of the membrane, hindering the diffusion of salt, this phenomenon is called concentration polarization.

25. Suspended solids (SS): refers to solid materials suspended in water, including inorganic substances, organic matter and mud sand, clay, microorganisms, etc. , which are insoluble in water. The suspended matter content in water is one of the indicators for measuring the degree of water pollution. It is the amount of solids obtained by drying the filter paper at a temperature of 103-105 degrees after filtration of the water sample. Unit mg/l.

26. Aeration: The process of transferring O2 in the air to a mixture and being utilized by microorganisms. The purpose is to provide dissolved oxygen required by microorganisms such as activated sludge to ensure the oxygen demand of the microbial metabolic process.

27. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): refers to the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by microorganisms in the process of decomposing and oxidizing organic matter in water at specified time, specified temperature, and specified conditions. The time normally used is 5 days, temperature is 20, Briefly note BOD5, in mg/L.

28. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): refers to the amount of oxygen consumed by a strong oxidant to oxidize organic matter in wastewater under certain conditions. The wastewater inspection standard generally uses potassium dichromate as the oxidant in units of mg/L.

29. Water hammer: Also known as water hammer. During the transportation of water (or other liquids), the flow rate suddenly changes due to the sudden opening or closing of the valve, the sudden stop of the pump, and the sudden opening and closing of the guide vanes, and the pressure is greatly fluctuated.

30. Adsorption: refers to a method in which a porous solid adsorbs one or more pollutants in the wastewater to recover or remove certain pollutants, thereby purifying the wastewater.

31. Enzyme: It is a catalyst (biocatalyst) made by itself in biological cells. Its basic component is protein, which is a substance that promotes the speed of biochemical reactions.

32. Sewage: Sewage refers to the general term for water discharged during production and living activities. In human life and production activities, humans use a lot of water, which is often polluted to varying degrees. The polluted water is called sewage.

33. Sewage treatment: It is the use of various technologies and means to separate, remove, recycle or convert pollutants contained in sewage into harmless substances, so that the water can be purified.

34. Wastewater reuse: The reuse of sewage or wastewater after secondary treatment and advanced treatment is used for production systems or miscellaneous use is called wastewater reuse. When the treated effluent meets the specific recycling requirements and is reused, it can also be called reclaimed water.

35. Scale: A solid deposit formed on the wall of the heated surface in contact with water after a period of operation due to poor water quality of the boiler water.

36. Water slag: refers to the solid matter suspended in the furnace water and the sediment deposited on the bottom of the steam drum and the bottom of the lower header. The difference in scale: the water slag is relatively loose, in a suspended or sediment state, and some of them are easily discharged with the boiler sewage; and the scale can be firmly bonded to the pipe wall and is not easily drained.

37. Iron, Manganese, Aluminum: Traces of iron and manganese will cause problems such as dyeing, scaling and taste. Iron will exist in the form of water-soluble ferrous iron in the reducing state, and will gradually become in contact with air. It is oxidized to yellow-brown colloidal ferric iron and finally precipitated as brown iron hydroxide. The characteristics of manganese are similar to those of iron. Since iron, manganese and aluminum oxides are also one of the causes of RO membrane fouling, it is necessary to analyze the content.

38. Pure water: refers to the removal of a strong dielectric that is easily removed in water, and the removal of weak electrolytes such as silicic acid and carbon dioxide, which are difficult to remove, to a certain extent. The pure water has a salt content of 1.0 mg/L or less and a conductivity of less than 3 μs/cm.

39. Ultrapure water: Also known as high-purity water, it refers to the removal of almost all conductive materials in water, and the removal of colloidal substances, gases and organic substances that are not dissociated in water to a very low level of water. The ultrapure water has a salt content of 0.1 mg/L or less and a conductivity of less than 0.1 μs/cm. Pure water and ultrapure water have strict requirements on salt content or conductivity, and there are strict limits on various metal ion contents, organic matter content, particle size and quantity, and microbial quantity in water.

40. Distilled water: It is a water obtained by heating and vaporizing raw water and then condensing the steam into distilled water. Generally, the conductivity of distilled water is about 10 μs/cm, and the distilled water is once again distilled to obtain secondary distilled water. Multiple distillations are used to obtain distilled water, and the electrical conductivity can be reduced to as low as about 1.0 μs/cm.

41. Scale inhibitor: It is a kind of medicament which has the function of dispersing insoluble inorganic salts in water, preventing or disturbing the precipitation and scaling of poorly soluble inorganic salts on metal surfaces, and maintaining good heat transfer effect of metal equipment.

42. Ion exchange resin: a polymer compound having a functional group (active group having exchanged ions), a network structure, and insolubility. Usually spherical particles.

43. Ion: refers to the loss of one or several electrons due to the action of the self or the outside world, so that the number of electrons in the outermost layer is 8 or 2 (? atoms) or no electrons (four neutrons). structure. This process is called ionization.

44. Water production (water flux): refers to the capacity of the reverse osmosis system, that is, the amount of membrane water per unit time, usually expressed in tons per hour (t / h) or gallons / day (g / d).

45. EDI: Short for continuous electric desalination, it is a new type of ultrapure water preparation technology. It subtly combines electrodialysis technology and ion exchange technology.


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