Dental implant failures are very rare. Dental implant surgery has a success rate of 95%. Failure in surgery is due to improper selection of patients. Implants fail for numerous reasons. They could be biological or microbiological factors, biomechanical factors, biomaterial factors, or due to implant surface treatments. Complications involved in the dental implant procedure are nerve damage, infection, the body's rejection of the implant and the implant itself breaking.
The most widespread cause of dental implant failure is poor oral hygiene. The build-up of dental plaque and debris around teeth and implants results in an increased concentration of bacteria. Good oral hygiene can greatly reduce infection.
Improper selection of patient is another reason for dental implant failure. Patients with sufficient quality or quantity of bone to support the implant fixture only are to be selected for the implant surgery. Otherwise, implants are doomed to be utter failures. Medical history and systematic health of the patient should be clearly checked by the dentist before surgery.
Another possible reason for implant failure is inferior surgical technique. Implant failure may result from insufficient irrigation of the surgical site or from using low torque and excessive drill speed during placement. Failure results from extreme temperature elevation in bone during placement, leading to necrosis of the supporting bone around the implant. Inadequate implant restorations may also contribute to implant failure. Poorly restored implants may have overhangs or be over-contoured, which may lead to plaque buildup and ultimate failure. Another research has shown that smoking can lead to higher rates of dental implant failure.
Smoking is exceptionally harmful to all oral tissues, especially when implants are present. It affects the healing of bone and soft tissue, by reducing the nutrients and minerals in the tissues and by reducing blood supply. To help keep the supporting bone and gum tissues healthy and capable of resisting infection, the implant patient should not smoke.
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