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How is Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosed?

Nugra Septadi

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Signs and symptoms

Overall, the most common symptoms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma include loss of appetite - of - and underweight, and irritation in the stomach and nausea. As these are fairly non-specific symptoms, and there is often a delay in reaching the final diagnosis. The most common physical sign of pancreatic cancer is jaundice, with or without associated with itching. Prior to medical evaluation often requires a high index of suspicion by the patient or by working in the medical field.


Often, the results of the laboratory bibirubin high (yellow pigment found in serum), and elevated liver enzymes functions. The California 19-9 Marker, Lewis blood group related mucin, often elevated in Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, but its use in screening or diagnosis of cancer at the present time is not an acceptable practice. 19-9 California high results may tend to be associated with (but not always point), and large-sized tumors with low prospects surgical resectability. Use of this label is the most universally accepted as a running within a certain person, to help reflect the stability or progress of the cancer.

Starting studies

The main reason for the departure of pancreatic cancer is an attempt to chart the best course of treatment, especially to help decide whether the patient is a candidate for surgery partial excision. There is a great deal of controversy and volatility in these areas; there is institutional, geographical and even differences in views as to the correct approach in this regard to the starting techniques. Also, there may be a significant change in the level of experience of the operators and residents of a particular procedure - and so (and perhaps rightly) color Foundation approach in recommending that use studies. In the context of these understandings, following a brief overview of and I will try to point out some of the strengths and weaknesses of some of the current procedures.

Overall, in the United States, the dynamic cycle (or spiral) CT survey with the fourth and oral contrast to the media in the promotion and considers that this procedure of choice for the start of pancreatic cancer. With the latest equipment and experienced operators and residents, and this approach could detect up to 90-95% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Tumours more than half inches one can usually detected. This CTS can predict unresectability about 90% of the time, but it is less accurate in predicting resectabilty surgical. Strength in this regard its ability to demonstrate local pancreatic involving the extension of arteries. This method is less reliable able to show the involvement of subtle local lines, for the detection of small liver or Metastasis to pick Lymph node involvement.

Transabdominal ultrasound procedure is the most popular outside the United States, where more experienced operators and the general patient population - may be less of obesity - a big problem in photography through the structures of the abdomen. In the hands of experienced, with a thin well with the patient and equipment, and this approach could ultrasound often picking up smaller tumors, which are even found by the CT procedure.

Two other ultrasound procedures are of the memorandum. The endoscopic ultrasound (ultrasound through a tube placed down one) can be very good at finding small tumors in the pancreas. Laparoscopic and ultrasound (ultrasound through a small tube through the abdomen into the region of the pancreas) is a sensitive liver and peritoneal participate, without having to resort to surgery complete.

Before operative tracking X-ray imaging (sightseeing contrast dye placed in the selection of the arteries) is recommended by some surgeons, in spite of the introduction of spiral CT has provided a competing option.

CT or ultrasound - guided percutaneous biopsy (via needle) can regain some of pancreatic tumor tissue for histologic (microscopic) to watch without requiring full surgery. There is some concern about the risk of unintentional “seeding" of the tumor in the peritoneum with this method, but some experts believe that the risks outweigh the potential harm involved in selected cases.

Often Foundation will have a coordinated approach to the diagnosis and departure for pancreatic cancer. For example, in the spiral CT procedure can be done first. If there seems to be tumor and it may be resectable, the next step may be laparoscopy (for the direct perception) - perhaps with peritoneal washes (to check for malignant cells in the peritoneum) and with or without Laparoscopic ultrasound exam. If the evidence found unresectability, percutaneous biopsy can be done, just to prove the diagnosis and assistance in medical treatment Planing. If there is no evidence of unresectability found, and then the whole process of surgery in the abdomen may usually entails further evaluate the clinical situation - and even if finally pointed to move forward in the most appropriate surgical procedures.

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