- The transmission of the forces applied at one point to another point using an incompressible fluid is the fundamental idea behind any Hydraulic system. Some sort of oil is used as a fluid. In this process the force is multiplied.
For example: Consider two pistons and oil –filled pipe connecting them. These two pistons are fitted into two glass cylinders (filled with oil). Oil-filled pipe is used to connect the pistons. Now by applying a force to any one piston (downward force), then the force passes through the oil in the pipe to the second piston. By nature, oil is incompressible and with good efficiency the force applied at one side, almost appears at second piston. Here the pipe that connects two cylinders can be of any length and shape and this is the great nature of hydraulic system. It is very easy to add force multiplication or division to the hydraulic system.
In mechanical systems, trading force for distance is common, and in hydraulic system this can be done by changing the size of one piston and cylinder. Considering one piston surface area nine times greater than the other piston, when the force is applied to the piston (smaller size piston) it will make moves nine units and here every one unit make the larger piston move. This force is multiplied by nine on larger piston.
Multiplication factor can be determined by the size of the pistons. Assume two pistons one at the right and one at left. Piston on the left is two inches in diameter (one inch radius) and right piston is about six inches in diameter(three inch radius). Equation Pi*r2 is the area of the two pistons. Therefore 3.14 is the area of left piston, while the area right piston is 28.26 that are nine times larger than the left piston. This says that any force applied to left hand piston, force here is nine times multiplied on the right hand piston. Best example is brakes in the car works on basic piston driven hydraulic system. When the brake pedal in the car is depressed, it pushes piston brake’s master cylinder. Each wheel has one slave pistons that activate to press the brake pads against the brake rotor to stop the car.
Log splitter is simple hydraulic device that is common nowadays and it contains basic elements of hydraulic machine:
Engine: This is small four stroke gasoline engine which provides power for the system and hydraulic oil pump is attached to engine.
Hydraulic oil pump: Stream of high pressure oil is created that runs to a valve.
Valve: It allows the operator to activate hydraulic cylinder and splits log.
Tank: It holds the hydraulic oil which feeds the pump.
The typical backyard log splitter has:
* Gasoline engine is of 5 horsepower.
* Two stage hydraulic oil pump.
* Long hydraulic cylinder of 24 inch and 4 inch diameter.
* Hydraulic oil tank 3.5 gallon.
Apart from the backyard log splitters hydraulic equipment is seen on construction site, amazing thing about these machines is their strength, agility and their sheer size. Hydraulic operated machines on constructions sites are shovels, loaders, bulldozers, cranes and many more.
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