How active are women in terms of contribution to overall social-economic changes of a country can be determined in several ways and by the use of different figures. Some of the most used figures are employment of women, their position in the system of political and social decision-making, educational level, but also “conquest" of new occupations. Computerization is evident in all business spheres and it influenced the development of some completely new occupations like webmaster, web designer, occupations related to computer graphics creation, computer games creations and similar. In mentioned occupations , women also found their place. However, in terms of new occupations, we cannot speak always about new jobs which appear as a product of fast technological changes and the expansion of computer technology. Namely, it is about “conquest" of some existing occupations by women that were earlier reserved only for men. Among them , dominates the interest of women about occupations in management and entrepreneurship sphere. This is been confirmed by statistical data in many countries, which show that the biggest growth of women’s work force is in these occupations during the past decade. This figure is far behind in Serbia and Yugoslavia not only compared to developed countries, but also compared to developing countries. The cause for this relatively low participation of women’s work force in these occupations and leader positions, in general, has been determined by many factors. On the first place by economic and political factors. They together influenced at general development, private business structure and the growth of employment rate in it. Consequently, this reflected on the rate of participation of women in entrepreneurial and managerial occupations in Serbia. This can support arguments with official statistical data, which show that in three-decade period ( from 1953 to 1983) the employment growth rate in private sector in Serbia was 2.2%, and according to our data even lower, 0.9%. Before the war in former Yugoslavia, in Serbia were only 23,000 employed in the private sector, of total 991,000 employed ( data according to the Republic Statistical Institute from January 1991).
According to the same source, in that moment 26,155 companies were registered in Serbia, among which 17,293 were private. In that structure, mostly were participated trading companies (7,418) and companies in financial and other services (1,519). The latest data from 2003 , shows that there are 70,178 companies registered in Serbia. It is an increase of 44,023 compared to 1990. Additionaly, in overall structure of entrepreneurial companies, men participated with 62.2%, while women participated only with 38.8% in 2003. To the growth of the figure of total number of registered companies, greatly contributes huge number of newly opened small companies .
The perspectives of women’s entrepreneurship in Serbia
With greater capital income in Serbia and by providing economic support to small companies, as well as with conduction of general reforms in economy and society, one can rightfully expect significant growth rate of private businesses.
In new expected conditions, women businesses will have greater contribution than before. In addition, it is neccesary to make a good base for general improvement of women` position in society. Therefore, recently forming one number of women’s organizations and their networking will make not only better connections between women, exchange experiences and knowledge, but also will create new space for employment. Besides that, we cannot forgot micro credits as a power tool for development of women’s entrepreneurial activities . It is also of the great importance for increasing self-employment of women and on the same time for reducing their unemployment.
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Ph. D. Mirjana Radović Marković was born in Belgrade. She gained complete expert education on the Faculty of Economics in Belgrade, where she got her Ph. D.in 1987. Her scientific career started at the Economics Institute in Belgrade and continued later at the Institute of Economic Sciences, also in Belgrade. Meanwhile, she was full-time and part-time engaged as a lectutrer and professor for entrepreneurship and management at the Faculty for Management BK in Belgrade, at the Faculty Farleigh Dickinson University in the USA, Akamai University USA, Lacrosse University USA, BCCS College in Belgrade She is an author and Program Director of Master Studies in the field of Science in Entrepreneurship for Women at Akamai University in the USA, which engaged her as representative for Eastern Europe with the seat in Belgrade, Serbia. Ph. D. Mirjana Radović